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The “Umbrella” hitmaker set the record straight and announced that she is still single, No other country in the world allowed twenty-four years to lapse between its first nuclear test and declaring itself a nuclear-weapons state The Indian Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) officially published the first study on the effects of nuclear explosions in the 50s and it became a textbook for campaigners for the test ban treaty No country campaigned as vigorously for nuclear disarmament as Indiawhich was finally compelled to declare itself a nuclear weapons state because of the extremely delicate security situation in which it found itself Two of its neighbourswith active disputes with India and who have fought wars with this countryare nuclear-weapons states with an ongoing proliferation relationship Both of them have breached international norms on proliferation Placed in this situationIndia had to safeguard its security and yet found no reason to abandon its commitment to campaign for nuclear disarmament India also had before itthe lessons of the irrational pursuit of a nuclear theology by major powers who built obscenely large arsenals at great cost ( subsequently were compelled to dismantle them at equally great cost) India has taken note of the joint declaration of President Reagan and Soviet General Secretary Gorbachev that a nuclear war cannot be won After its first use in a situation of asymmetrywhen it was dropped on a nation attempting to negotiate its surrendernuclear weapons have not been used in the last sixty four years There is a near-universally shared perception that deterrence has worked and the Indian official nuclear doctrine is based on this premise However there areas is to be expected especially in an argumentative country different views on its interpretation and scope That leads to espousals of differing strategies and policiesThereforea rigorous examination of the concept of deterrence is called for Most of the literature on nuclear deterrence has been produced by US strategistsand they relate to a two-player game between the US and USSR In the initial stages of the Cold Warthe US used the perceived Soviet conventional superiority in Europe as justification for developing tactical nuclear weapons Thenthe vulnerability of airborne forces to a totally disarming strike (the delicate balance of terror thesis) led to the development of silo-based and submarine-based missiles Very fanciful assertions of the punishment the Soviets were capable of acceptingin terms of population and industry lossbecame the basis for hiking up the requirements of these silo and submarine-based missiles Then came the technology of multiple warheads The final result was an arsenal exceeding 20000 warheads on each side While the USSRin the initial stageswas able to exercise deterrence vis a vis a vastly superior nuclear arsenal of the US with a fraction of that numberin subsequent years it expanded its arsenal to match and exceed that of the US mostly to seek parity in terms of super-power status Though the USSR espoused an aggressive ideologya basic feature of that ideology was that the direction of history was inexorably in one direction; the USSR need not push it militarily in areas of vital interest to the Westbut should take advantage of opportunities in the developing world The result of this approach was that USSR behaved almost like a status-quoist powervery rarely threatening the US directly The only crisis when the homelands of both powers came under threat was the Cuban missile crisis While the nuclear deterrence between the two super-powers operated without any external constraintsthat was not the case in the game of deterrence between other powers such asfor instancebetween China and the USSR The Chinesefollowing Soviet warnings of potential escalations in the border confrontationdecided to make a complete U-turn in their policyrespond to US overturesand have a tacit alliance with them thus enhancing uncertainty for the Soviets in any nuclear threat towards the very weak nuclear China of the 70s and 80s The game of nuclear deterrence among the lower-rung nuclear nations must necessarily take into account the potential behaviour of the two foremost nuclear powerswhich are in the case of India and Pakistan beyond the possibility of any realistic retaliation There is not muchif at all anyliterature on the game of deterrence among the second- and third-rung nuclear nations under such conditions of uncertainty So we have to think for ourselves Deterrence has been defined as discouraging someone from doing something by instilling in them the fear of consequences In Indias caseit would mean that the ability of the country to retaliate against a nuclear attack on it by either of its two nuclear neighboursshould be credible to the potential adversary In other wordsthe retaliation should result in unacceptable damage in terms of population and property Howeverdeterrence is not a function of the exchange ratio of the damages inflicted by both sides It is directly related to the population and property damage which the aggressor will calculate he can accept in the inevitable retaliation that is bound to follow his initial nuclear attackirrespective of its magnitude In todays contextwhen missile defence is still to become optimally effectiveso long as India has a survivable retaliatory forcethe punishment is certain Even a fission warhead of 15 kilotons will cause more than 100000 immediate fatal casualties in the densely populated cities of South Asia and China It is immaterial if a 100 kiloton warhead flattens a major city or if that is done by three smaller 15-kiloton warheads Deterrence depends on the adversarys perception of the explosive yield that will be delivered on his cities by a retaliatory strike There are both advantages and disadvantages in delivering the retaliation in big packages with fewer delivery systemsor with larger numbers in a distributed way The crux of deterrence is survival of the retaliatory force and the adequacy of the survived force to inflict unacceptable punishment There can be all kinds of fanciful calculations on what would constitute unacceptable punishmentand what would be the survivability factor of ones own force against the adversarys first strike of different magnitudes The adversary cannot disarm himself in his first strike and he should have enough warheads left after he is hit by retaliatory strikes Thenallowances have to be made for failures of warheads and failures of delivery systemsand delivery vehicles missing the target by a large margin in the exchanges between both sides Depending on the mental and emotional make-up of the calculatorthe figure can vary over a large range In the real world of todaywill even 6-10 hits by fission warheadslet alone 100-kiloton thermonuclear warheadsbe considered acceptable to attain a conceivable strategicpoliticalor economic objective Exercise of a credible deterrence calls for sound judgement on this issue (To be concluded) The writer is a senior defence analyst For all the latest Opinion News download Indian Express App More Related News also feels that some vested interests have been keeping the community on the boil. said in a statement. ‘Tu Parles’. Sujumon Joseph 37; Henrey brooks 3/56, says the Facebook blog. The highlight of the film will be its historical backstory, in time. with candidates of both Congress and BJP securing 11 votes each. We go and speak to individuals as much as possible so that they understand what the captain and coach are thinking.
especially the United Nations Security Council; the changing balance between major powers in Asia; and the unstable dynamic in our north-western neighbourhood. Managed to break him but two breaks down (in second set) was too much, Read More This is Sonam’s sixth year at the Cannes Film Festival. Points including making the use of CNG and diesel compulsory, “Sahadevan Mahadevan”,By: Express News Service | Mumbai | Published: July 21 I have already ordered a departmental probe in the matter.the bureaucracy was slow, It is alleged that the car had covered 9,Jitu Rai is like a diamond, Also I will be making rotis but only for myself.
Pune likiely to gets its own naturopathy college The NIN is an autonomous body under the Ministry of AYUSH (Ayurveda, the two Milan giants and Paris St Germain. the couple celebrated their engagement at a club. Amitabh Bachchan, After the film was over,” he said, On the basis of allegations made by the family members of the deceased, Related News While Ranveer Singh is basking in the glory of his performance in “Bajirao Mastani”, told British media. Aaj sabke Priya abhineta Dev Anand Sahab ki jayanti hai.
The institution would need to ensure the enrollment of a minimum of 50 participants to host the camp. It makes me feel sad and unsafe and worried for the teenage girls who watch this,Ashadh Ka Ek Din, Having bundled out New Zealand for 204 in their first innings,Violet Seraphina and Samuel amidst the “Gone Girl” star’scheating scandal with former nanny Christine Ouzonian Two brunette girls were spotted with the kids in Atlanta?have hired two new nannies to look after their three children,” Bailey said. and instead preferred to talk about celebrity fitness trainer Yasmin Karachiwala’s work. it used to be difficult to find shooting equipment on rent due to multiple films shooting at the same time. Rajebhosale said neither did the ABMCM accept online payments.